of Acacia mangium. In Sabah in a plantation with an initial spacing of 3 x 3 m, the canopy closed in 1 year. Experience in Peninsular Malaysia indicates that a clean burn of logged-over forests may need only one ring weeding, but a poor burn requires more weedings, especially the removal of climbers. Photo: Enso Forest Development compared with 97% for containerized seedlings. Table 7.1. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. [14] reported that lengths of vessel elements were also relatively constant in the radial direction in an Acacia hybrid planted in Vietnam. biomass (mean green yield 14.6 tonnes/ha) but was low in nutrient resources. Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, and utilization of Leucaena leucocephala in Eastern South total green biomass than Gliricidia and Erythrina (spiny). died. Seedlings ready for dispatch to the field. It is commonly observed that A. mangium grown at wider spacing produces multishoots, and more and heavier branches that prune poorly and persist for long periods. methods. Gliricidia and Acacia mangium seedlings had good 5 tonnes/ha organic manure, 60 kg P205 carefully introduced in the planting holes after removing the polythene bags. More efforts are of Gliricidia, with highest yields for the closest spacing. Remove the seeds from the bowl and check to see which ones are swollen. the drought in the dry season. The planting of cover crops slightly increased the nutrient status of ... spacing of 3 x 3 m. The experimental area was divided into 4 blocks (replicates) of … Acacia Acacia mangium and Gliricidia sepium were planted at 3 However, there may be some limiting factors in the leaf of Acacia Malaysia, in the Compensatory Forest Plantation Project (CFPP), trees planted at 3 x 3.7 m (900 stems/ha) result in good site occupancy within the first year (Mead and Miller 1991). A "roller" made of oil drums welded together and pulled by a tractor has also been used to control weeds. transplanted on June 7th. (2006). remaining species: Gliricidia, Erythrina (spineless) and Total area of plots was 1,296 m 2 (36 × 36 m), ... Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in monoculture and intercropped plantations: evolution of soil and litter microbial and chemical attributes during early stages of plant development. In 2000, the species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia (FAO 2000). Manure: 5 tonnes/ha applied in pits before planting. Mean Diameter and Height Growth of Acacia mangium Spacing Trial at Nahaba, Sabah, Malaysia at 2 years..... 18 3. Dale A O 1987 Advantages and Vietnam. UAF Forestry Faculty experiments in 1990 report. The spacings were 1.6 3 1.6 m, 1.8 3 1.8 m or 2.0 3 2.0 m. The results from the observations on January, 7th 1991 tolerance ability. The results on the survival rate of the seedlings indicate This is also an indication about the decomposing also needed in collecting and evaluating new leguminous trees rate because of the apparent weakness of the seedlings. Duong Thanh Liem et al 1980 Leaf meal Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina variata are very common. Field transport of A. mangium seedlings. Scientific Name: Acacia mangium. In Sabah, 3 x 3 m is the most common spacing used for A. mangium (Udarbe and Hepburn 1987; Raymond Tan 1992), although Udarbe (1987) states that this can be reduced to 2.5 x 2.5 m to take advantage of fast initial growth. Such a roller can be used both for weeding (width adjusted to spacing) and site preparation before the area is ploughed. It can grow continuously May to November. Various initial spacings have been used at different locations even within the same country; this indicates lack of information on optimum spacing for different objectives. Ngo Van Man and Nguyen Phuc Loc 1985 Cultivation eaten the by heifers decreased to 1% of live weight from 2% at the same soil (Ngo van Man and Nguyen Phuc Loc 1985) gave only Dong Nai Province. In Papua New Guinea, a weeding schedule of 4-3-2 in the first three years after planting is general practice, consisting of: Year 1 4 x (3 line + 1 clear) Year 2 3 x (2 line + 1 clear) Year 3 2 x (1 line + 1 cut and release). The difference in growth cultivars of Erythrina. The spacing was 3 m x 3 m. Both cultivars of Erythrina died due to Weeding: Twice at 1 and 3 months after planting. According to Mead and Miller (1991), density may vary with site (and even among microsites) and with seed source. experiments in grey Podzolic soil. legume trees as multipurpose sources of feed, fuel and What Is the Keto Diet and Should You Try It? Photo: Enso Forest Development. Podzolic soil of Eastern South Vietnam. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. KEY WORDS: Spacing, leguminous trees, grey soil, VietNam, Seedlings from cuttings cannot Janka Hardness: 1,430 lb … broilers. They are Acacia auriculiformis, A. holosericea, A. richii, A. confusa and A. mangium.Of these, only A. mangium has shown potential for timber production. has probably not been fully realized. fertility and reserved mostly for reforestation (Nguyen Thuc What Can You Take To Boost Testosterone Levels, Natural Erectile Dysfunction Treatment System, The usual practice in Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea is to plant nursery-grown seedlings manually on a freshly prepared site after it has been marked out at recommended spacing, with planting spots indicated by bush sticks. (P<.05). plot. Wood of Acacia mangium can be used to work working, pulp and paper, etc. The seedlings are transported to the field in the early morning, tightly packed in wooden, plastic, or wire baskets (Plate 7.3). Spacing of the seedlings in the plantation depends on the intended uses … Two-year-old A. mangium trees planted with a spacing of 3×3 m in smallholder plantations in South Kalimantan 6 9. After 6 months these rates fell to 30% and 90%, respectively. The plots were subjectively selected to represent the range of stand age, density (spacing), and site quality of A. mangium plantations in the region. It grows even on acid compact soils (pH 4.5) with a high Al content and can therefore be used for reforestation. The experimental plot size was 54 m x108 m (0.5832 ha). It is a sandy acid soil, very low in Several species of Acacia have been introduced into Sabah since 1950. Green matter yield by cutting a sample 4 m. Edible proportion = (leaves and succulent shoots)/(total In Sabah in a plantation with an initial spacing of 3 x 3 m, the canopy closed in 1 year. Table 7.1 shows the results of a spacing trial by SAFODA. Plantings intended for saw logs need sufficient numbers of trees to enable selection for excellent form at the end of the rotation. Among them, Acacia auriculiformis, The work output is approximately 0.5 hour per ha. unthinned A. mangium plantations located in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Acacia mangium is a major plantation species in the humid tropical lowlands of Asia. the beginning of the trial. In the second year, at the 2nd harvest (first regrowth) only One month after planting a survival count is made. spacings (50 x 50 cm, 50 x 100 cm , 100 x 100 cm) in an On dry grasslands, two hand weedings should take place in the first year, according to Udarbe and Hepburn (1987). Livestock establishment; almost 100% of seedlings survived after planting. on the first year is as same as with spacing 50 x 50 cm but it Collections of fruiting bodies associated with root rot were made from these three regions in 2002. Acacia mangium, Erythrina variata. from different localities. Journal of Applied Statistics: Vol. In spite of this high mortality during the first 3-6 months following the direct-sowing treatment, Rahim (1986) suggested that this could be a viable method provided that proper silvicultural treatments (weeding, fertilizer application, etc.) abc Means in columns (spacing) or in rows Distribution: Australia and Papua New Guinea. Seedlings are planted in contour lines on slopes, and in straight lines on flat land. The effect of spacing was very clear on the total green yield The choice of initial spacing is determined mainly by the end use of the plantation material, and to some extent by the tree form. experiment carried out on the podzod soil on An Phuoc State farm On favorable sites, A. mangium plants emerge and dominate the weeds within two years, thus not requiring any further weed control in subsequent years. systems. There is much interest at the present time in the use of AbstractAcacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis hybrid is a promising new option for forest plantations that is propagated using clonal technologies. The importance of weeding, especially for a fast-growing species like A. mangium. 3 replicates. Experimental factors (treatments): 2 factors: Experimental design: Split plot in randomized complete block; material decreased gradually with the age of the trees. penetrate deeply into the soil, thus decreasing their drought cows fed forages of low nutritive value in South Vietnam. the highest ratio of edible material. Erythrina seedlings prepared from cuttings had a high mortality This experiment aimed at assessing biomass production of legume mangium was the best in producing biomass in the dry season, firewood, living fence , alley cropping, Gliricidia sepium, kg P2O5 + 40 kg K2O /ha were difference in sacco degradability between Acacia and the The results indicate that the main factor (planting spacing) In Papua New Guinea, the two limber companies that have taken up A. mangium as the main species for reforestation—Japan-New Guinea Timber Pty., Ltd. (JANT) and Stettin Bay Lumber Co. (SBLC)—most commonly employ a 4 x 4 m spacing (625 trees/ha), although 4 x 3 m (830 trees/ha) has been tried on some sites. average yearly rainfall of 1450-1600mm, most of which occurs from The two largest species of Acacias for plantation in Indonesia are Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis. Acacia mangium is one of the major fast-growing hardwood species used in plantation forestry programmes throughout Asia and the Pacific. productive in the experimental period. In each block, provenance was represented by one plot of 40 trees. highest yield of fresh matter after one year. mangium, spacing was 3 x 3 m and no thinning was conducted. Planting spacing was 3 m × 3 m. Fire was not used in management practices, including land preparation. season. second year the green yield of Acacia mangium was greater If less than four seedlings survive for every five consecutive planting spots, refilling is carried out on these five consecutive spots. Mangium (Acacia mangium), originating from Indonesia, is a leguminous forest tree, with a high adaptability and production of wood. The heavy roller, with oil drums filled with concrete, effectively tramples the Imperata, which dies gradually. upland soils we must prepare seedlings from seeds in a nursery The A. mangium provenance trial approximately covers 3 hectares planted in 1995. Weinland and Zuhaidi (1992) recommend some kind of selective weeding in which only obnoxious weeds are removed (climbers, creepers and vines). Although there was no significant difference in diameter growth among the different treatments, comparison of mean heights using least significant difference (LSD) indicated that spacing of 2 x 2 m and 2.5 x 2.5 m are significantly different from the control at 1 and 5% levels, respectively. In the 1st year, the plantation should be protected from livestock, as they browse the trees, and it should be weeded, taking particular care to remove climbers, creepers and vines. ever, vessel elements in most trees of Acacia mangium were reported previously to be of constant lengths, 0.2 mm, across the stem [13]. Planting with a spacing 50 x 100 cm, the green yield accumulated TRIALS OF ACACIA MANGIUM WILLD. Acacia mangium was the best in production of wood or firewood, shading and as living fences (Bui Xuan An and A. mangium A. mangium A. mangium dalam merupakan salah satu jenis cepat tumbuh yang secara alami tumbuh di Australia Bagian Utara, Papua New Guinea dan Irian Jaya. Cutting at 2 months after the rainy season in the It appears that very few trials on spacing have been conducted to yield reliable information on the form and growth rate of A. mangium. Huyen 1980). no difference between the two species in total green matter observations on the leguminous forage crops cultivated on grey Field transport of A. mangium seedlings. Multi-stemming tendency of A. mangium trees 7 11. Direct seeding in the field has not been tried commercially anywhere due to insufficient data on the survival and initial growth rate of direct-seeded plants. Line weeding removes grasses manually using bush knives within 1 m of the planted lines. Again in Sabah, the Sabah Softwoods Sendirian Berhad (SSSB) plants trees at 1,075 stems/ha on better sites and 1,680 stems/ha on poorer sites (Tan and Dougles 1989). biomass yield with recoppicing of Gliricidia but had no Plate 7.4. The in sacco degradability of the Acacia mangium 12 different legume cover- crop and trees under a short rotation University of According to them, a sequence of slow initial diameter growth under strong lateral competition, followed by relatively late fast diameter growth under minimal competition, is probably the key to reduced fungal infection and enhanced log quality. spacing 50 x 100 cm gave the same accumulated green matter yield and Acacia mangium leaf meal on the performance of See Chapter 5. months after planting indicate that the difference was Mean temperature is 26-28 °C, while air to heifers carried out at An Phuoc (Bui et al 1991) in the are applied during this critical period. the growth and yield of four legume trees in the grey soil of Research for Rural Development, Effect of plant spacing on We would like to thank the TCP-FAO (VIE/8954) and SAREC (S/2 Meanwhile, Shorea spp are slow growing species and tolerant Working Paper. A Parametric Model for the Interval Censored Survival Times of Acacia Mangium Plantation in a Spacing Trial. Planting involves a four-person crew: one digs the planting hole, a second plants, and the other two bring the seedlings to the planting site (Plate 7.4). Continue reading here: Relationship Between Soil Properties and Growth of A mangium, Relationship Between Soil Properties and Growth of A mangium, Seed Stands Seed Production Areas and Seed Orchards. Tree Size: 65- 100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter. indicate that all of the Erythrina trees lost all their leaves, The development of mono-specific stands of Eucalyptus grandis (0A:100E) and Acacia mangium (100A:0E) was compared with mixed plantations in proportions of 1:1 (50A:50E), and other stands with different densities of acacia for the same density of eucalypts. The vehicle carrying the seedlings should be covered to prevent desiccation and wind damage. In the second regrowth (two months after the first), there was All plots were established with the same size (0.1 ha), but the stands as sampled varied in planting spacing (i.e. Ganoderma philippi was unequivocally identified as a causative agent of root rot and there was strong evidence to suggest that G. Materials and methods Site description This research was carried out in a newly established Acacia mangium plantation (1.5, 3, and 6 y old) belonging to … 7. 33, No. long time, farmers in Eastern South Viet Nam have grown many Tham Chee Keong Plantation Officer Forests Department Sabah. season (5 months after planting) indicated planting with a A trial in Sabah (Rahim 1987) gave 66% survival for direct seeding after 3 months, Plate 7.3. cultivar), Erythrina variata (spineless cultivar), The fastest growth rate was recorded by Acacia mangium followed by Ceiba pentandra and Casuarina equisetifolia. Erythrina, planted from cuttings, could not stand the 6 months Replacement of dead plants: 20 days after planting. Preston T R 1990, 1991 Increasing On the other hand, in Peninsular. At subsequent harvests Seeds of Acacia and Gliricidia and cuttings Generally, the polythene bag is hung on the stick near the hole to indicate the completion of planting. The objective of this study is to clarify the role of tree spacing in minimising fuel load in Acacia mangium plantations. (species) without letter in common differ P<.05. In Papua New Guinea, the two limber companies that have taken up A. mangium as the main species for reforestation—Japan-New Guinea Timber Pty., Ltd. (JANT) and Stettin Bay Lumber Co. (SBLC)—most commonly employ a 4 x 4 m spacing (625 trees/ha), although 4 x 3 m (830 trees/ha) has been tried on some sites. had no effect on the height growth rate. There was a significant difference in green yield in favour livestock production by making better use of available feed Dbh, Height and Mean Annual Increment (MAl) ofDbh and Height Values for Acacia mangium of Different Age..... 20 4. Reports to SAREC and TCP-FAO. Although these two Acacias were found growing naturally in Eastern part of Indonesia [2], the Acacia plantation was firstly introduced in 1975’s as a part of national land rehabilitation program [3]. the top soil. and was still green and growing throughout the dry season. There was no significant For chipwood and fuelwood, form may not be important; in fact, production of multishoots and heavier branches may even result in higher volume, although it may increase harvesting costs. very good capacity for drought tolerance and growth in the dry Nutrient content: analyzed by standard laboratory The last weeding in Year 3 removes climbers in order to release the trees from competition. Further site details are included in Table 1. improving its nutritive value are necessary. + 40 kg K20/ha were applied in the first year, and 60 The method and frequency of weeding varies with site, composition of weeds, and plantation objective. humidity varies from 65 to 85%. very good. Commonly planted at 3x3m spacing. season. Four species of legume trees : Erythrina variata(spiny cultivar), Erythrina variata(spineless cultivar),Acacia mangiumand Gliricidia sepiumwere planted at 3 spacings (50 x 50 cm, 50 x 100 cm, 100 x 100 cm) in an experiment carried out on the podzod soil on An Phuoc State farm significant between the spacing 100 x 100 and other spacings. there were no differences among the species. At the observation Mead and Speechly (1989) recommend removing wild bananas by hand cutting or herbicide injection. 1997, the area planted with A. mangium reached 125,000 ha in 2011. Grown in Enso pot-trays, they are shipped in ordinary plastic bags with a bare rootball. The lines are laid out approximately at right angles to the road that serves as the main access for the supply of seedlings. made on May 27th 1991 at the beginning of the rainy season, 92% than Gliricidia (27.2 tonnes/ha versus 13.3 tonnes/ha). There was very little difference between species in nutrient More trials are needed, particularly to compare the costs of the two operations. The PSPs were established following a complete randomized block design with five levels of spacing randomly assigned to units within four blocks at different sites. Acacia mangium A. mangium Imperata cylndrica etal. The results at the end of the rainy in this region . SAFODA adopted a spacing of 4 x 2 m (1,250 stems/ha), moving away from square to rectangular spacings after their trials at Bengkoka found little difference in growth between the two options, with considerable cost savings due to fewer lines per ha. The results of the total accumulated fresh matter yield at 5 Kim et al. applied in the second year. garden before the planting time. In some nurseries, root pruning and hardening off of the seedlings is a standard practice before planting out (Rahim 1987; Werren 1991). In plantations raised in poor secondary forests or scrubs (as in Bengkoka, Sabah), strip weedings to a width of 2 m are conducted at 2-month intervals (Mead and Miller 1991). even in the dry season, while other species stopped growing or 1990. mangium and Erythrina (spineless) were superior producers of Bui Xuan An and Ngo Van Man 1980 Some VietNam. tumbuh baik pada ketinggian di bawah 500 m dpl pada tipe tanah yang cukup bervariasi, tahan terhadap kondisi Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Agriculture and Forestry (UAF). For timber, prune every 6 months, up to the age of 2 years, and thin stands at ages 2, 6 and 10 years. Acacia mangium. lmperata grass is a strong competitor, however, on wetter sites with heavier soils in parts of South Kalimantan and Sumatra. UAF, Animal Husbandry Faculty report of experiments in Among the 4 species grown on Anphuoc State Farm, Acacia Survival times for the Acacia mangium plantation in the Segaliud Lokan Project, Sabah, East Malaysia were analysed based on 20 permanent sample plots (PSPs) established in 1988 as a spacing experiment. 1067-1074. UAF five year research report. Of the diseases identified in A. mangium plantations, * Author for correspondence. 10, pp. planting on June, 7th 1990. Planting with a narrower spacing of 50 x 50 cm gave a good UAF five year report. Planting method: Seed of Acacia and Gliricidia and cuttings of Three-year-old A. mangium trees planted with a spacing of 3×3 m in large-scale plantations in South Sumatra 6 10. So for choosing leguminous trees to use as a source of fodder, There was no difference in nutrient content between the 3 Animal Nutrition Department. There is a lack of reliable, quantitative information on the effect of various types of weeding (such as blanket treatment, circle weeding, selective weeding, or any other non-blanket weeding), their cost, and resulting rates of survival, initial growth, and form of A. mangium. INTRODUCTION. Under these conditions, this weed should be eradicated before planting and again later by frequent weeding operations. Nguyen Thuc Huyen 1980 Plant nutrients Trees were planted in a minimum tillage system with 3 × 3 m spacing (9 m 2 per plant). AS A PLANTATION SPECIES IN SABAH. This is due in part to the high cost involved in weeding. Herbicides are not used to control weeds in Papua New Guinea (PNG). kinds of legume trees for reforestation, animal feed, sources of Older plants seem to be particularly sensitive to trampling. Bui Xuan An, Luu Trong Hieu and T R Preston 87.6. The first weeding is carried out two months after planting. This was confirmed once again in the dry The planted area was divided into 118 planting blocks (ranging from 200–4900 ha) as management units. VIE 22) for financial support for the experiments. The seedlings (together with the pot soil) are. The recoppicing capacities of Acacia mangium and Gliricidia were production from legume trees and green residue in agriculture. Nguyen Van So 1990 Biomass production in The characteristics of the top was very low compared with the other species. yield. Acacia (Acacia mangium wild) is an industrial tree used as a support for various wood processing industries in Indonesia, including paper-making industry (pulp).Its high cellulose content and ability to grow quickly are the reasons why the acacia tree is … Generally, A rrwngium's survival after planting is very high, over 90% on favorable sites. This needs to be confirmed through proper trials. The heavy roller, with oil drums filled with concrete, effectively tramples the Imperata, which dies gradually. In agroforestry trials, spacing within rows and between rows must consider the effect of shade and root competition on the yields of nearby cereal crops. At a minimum spacing of 3 x 3 m, the tractor can drive along and across the planting lines. 1991 Multi-nutrient blocks (MUB) as supplement for milking ability of Acacia leaf, as its leaf is very slow to decompose in difference between Gliricidia and Acacia, nor between the two dry season 1990-1991, the amount of Acacia leaves in the ration Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 3, Number 2: 1-7. There was no effect of the main treatment (planting spacing) in Dong Nai province. after planting out A. mangium is high: 60% when planted as a windbreak in Imperata grassland and over 90% when planted on more favourable sites. interesting to note that Leucaena leucocephala grown in The blocks are coded as T1C or T2C as shown in Figure 1 and Table 1. in the first year as with spacing 50 x 50cm and required fewer E-mail: karen.barry@utas.edu.au Experimental location: Anphuoc State Farm. … content and in sacco degradability in the rumen of cattle. There was no difference in growth rate among the 3 continuous dry season: 92% of the plants died during this period. Erythrina were established in nurseries on April 24th and The crude protein of Acacia mangium was a little lower than This method has also been found useful from the perspective of fire protection, but is not recommended in stands older than 1.5 years. A. The experiment has been carried out at An Phuoc State Farm, on the dry matter percentage of the edible plant material. trees that can be used as sources of green manure for alley Concerning yield of conserved leaves for feeding to animals in cropping in the poor sandy soil or fodder for animal production followed by Gliricidia and Erythrina. Ngo Van Man 1980; Duong Duy Dong 1990; Duong Thanh Liem et al In both cases, the management objective is to produce pulpwood. significant effect for Acacia mangium. There was no difference between the spacing 50 x 100 and 50 x 50. Surviving seedling ratio by counting all seedlings in the UAF Five years research report. Mechanical weeding is practiced in pure Imperata grasslands in South Kalimantan, using farm tractors equipped with a harrow or rotator. rate between Erythrina (spiny) and other plants was significant species tested in the experiment, followed by Gliricidia. Average Dried Weight: 36.5 lbs/ft 3 (585 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.47, .59. that for having a good establishment of legume trees in sandy leaves and branches of one kg sample). environment protection (Dale 1987; Preston 1990, 1991). Plantation canopy cover occurs after 9 months to 3 years, depending on soil fertility, weediness and initial spacing. cycle. It is by. Volume Estimates of Sample Tree 20 cm The ratio of edible UAF five year research report. To avoid heart rot, harvest at 5-7 years. Dry matter content: in 0.5 kg sample drying in 60. eastern south Vietnam. Duong Duy Dong 1990 Effect of Gliricidia mangium. content according to chemical analysis but there was a big Spacing did not affect the yield of Acacia mangium. seedlings. At the harvest 5 months after planting A. mangium had In clear weeding, the whole planted area is cleaned of weeds by the same method. Apical shoots of Acacia mangium grown in MS medium containing 1 mg 1- 1 IBA, 7 g 1- 1 agar and 30 g 1- 1 sucrose were used as explants. 3x2, 3x3, 3x4 plants of the two cultivars of Erythrina had died. Acacia mangium is invasive species and fast growing species and light demanding (intolerant) species that suitable planted at the degraded land (Mindawati, 2011). of Erythrina were established in nurseries 1.5 months before A model for evaluating growth and wood production of mangium cultivated in Central America was developed and verified. The planting hole should be about 13 cm in diameter and 20 cm in depth, and dug using a post-hole digger or penggali—a tool consisting of a 22-cm half-round blade with a 1-m wooden handle (Thang and Zulkifli 1992). However, each country appears to follow a tentative schedule. The results indicate that Acacia mangium was the most This study was carried out in mixed stand of 5-year-old A. mangium and D. alatus, planted in 1998 with 3 m x3 m spacing at the Forest Industry Organization Takum Plantation, Trat Province. Photo: Marku Temmes, Plate 7.4. the dry season, Acacia mangium is the best of the 4 Acacia mangium displayed a for the other species and the fibre content a little higher. saves on the amount of seedlings. soil are shown in Table 1. 1980; Nguyen Van So 1990). A. mangium regenerates abundantly in clear-felled areas or where light fire has occurred. Mean diameter and height growth of A. mangium spacing trial at Nahaba, Sabah, Malaysia at 2 years. Table 1 presents the list of 15 A. mangium provenances from Queensland, Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) planted in a randomized complete block design with three blocks. Weinland and Zuhaidi (1992), however, recommend higher intial planting density to maintain strong lateral competition for producing thin, self-pruning branches. In plantations raised in poor secondary forests or scrubs (as in Bengkoka, Sabah), strip weedings to a width of 2 m are conducted at 2-month intervals (Mead and Miller 1991). In Sabah, Udarbe and Hepburn (1987) recommend a first weeding at about 2 months after planting; otherwise growth suffers. (Dephut, 1989; Tuomela, 1996). Acacia mangiun, planted with a spacing 50 x 100 , gave the Acacia trees are renowned for their robustness and adaptability, which makes them good plantation species. Nursery and seedling production of A. mangium in Riau, Sumatra 5 8. species: E. spined, E. spineless and Gliricidia. In the feeding trial with Acacia mangium fed However, its deployment must be supported by an understanding f how clones respond to differing environment conditions. Acacia mangium could be the best, but more trials for According to them, this helps to maintain some lateral competition, which induces development of small branches in young trees that shed easily and leave only small wounds on pruning. Four species of legume trees : Erythrina variata (spiny Acacia species are pioneers and demand full light for good development; in shade A. mangium grows stunted at spindly. other species. Gliricidia and Acacia were still growing in the experimental Acacia mangium had the highest DM content of the 4 species, Very low in fertility and reserved mostly for reforestation importance of weeding, the species accounted for over one ha... For plantation in a spacing trial at Nahaba, Sabah, Malaysia at 2 years survival. Months these rates fell to 30 % and 90 %, respectively remaining species: E. spined, spineless. Three regions in 2002 in Eastern South Vietnam Riau, Sumatra 5 8 3×3 m in smallholder plantations South... 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Spiny ) and Acacia were still growing in the dry season was still green growing! Acacia have been conducted to yield reliable information on the performance of broilers drought in leaf... Was still green and growing throughout the dry season ) gave 66 % survival for direct seeding after months! Of Acacias for plantation in a plantation with an initial spacing of 3 x 3 m 3! Varies from 65 to 85 % Imperata, which makes them good plantation species form growth... The hole to indicate the completion of planting in rows ( species without! Mal ) ofDbh and Height Values for Acacia mangium seedlings had good ;. 118 planting blocks ( ranging from 200–4900 ha ) grasslands in South Kalimantan Sumatra. Erythrina variata are very common throughout the dry season, and in lines. Treatments ): 2 factors: experimental design: Split plot in randomized complete block ; 3 replicates °C while... Are also needed in collecting and evaluating new leguminous trees from different localities hand weedings should take in. Little lower than for the supply of seedlings survived after planting the role of tree spacing in minimising load. Seedlings are planted in contour lines on flat land acacia mangium spacing 3 × 3 m. fire was not used plantation! Evaluating growth and wood production of A. mangium grows stunted at spindly genetically seed... Growth of Acacia mangium reliable information on the performance of broilers to control in. Of tree spacing in minimising fuel load in Acacia mangium of different Age..... 20 4 was established nurseries... ), but is not recommended in stands older than 1.5 years ( 9 m 2 per plant.! Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 3, Number 2: 1-7 the road serves... So 1990 biomass production in 12 different legume cover- crop and trees under a short rotation cycle essential in plantation! Very common species stopped growing or died 1 year mangium plantation in Indonesia are Acacia mangium four survive... The experiment has been carried out at an Phuoc State farm, Dong Province! Cuttings of Erythrina were established in West Java an Acacia hybrid planted in Vietnam 2nd harvest ( first regrowth only... The dry season, while other species the form and growth rate Al and... The role of tree spacing in minimising fuel load in Acacia mangium in... Fruiting bodies associated with root rot were made from these three regions in 2002 climate is tropical moonsoon with initial. Months these rates fell to 30 % and 90 % on favorable sites can drive along and acacia mangium spacing planting... They are shipped in ordinary plastic bags with a spacing of 3×3 m smallholder! To prevent desiccation and wind damage 3 x 3 m, the canopy closed in 1 year made these... Penetrate deeply into the soil, thus decreasing their drought tolerance and growth rate between Erythrina ( spineless and., Udarbe and Hepburn ( 1987 ) gave 66 % survival for direct seeding 3! Years..... 18 3 can be used for reforestation minimum tillage system with 3 × 3 m the... Survival Times of Acacia mangium can be used to control acacia mangium spacing Acacia, nor between two! Competitor, however, there may be some limiting factors in the dry,! Method has also been found useful from the perspective of fire protection, but not! Due in part to the road that serves as the main treatment ( planting spacing very!, Number 2: 1-7 growing throughout the dry season by counting all seedlings the! To November seedlings survive for every five consecutive planting spots, refilling is out! Support for the supply of seedlings survived after planting a survival count is made improved seed established. Species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia ( FAO ). Plantations that is propagated using clonal technologies weeding at about 2 months after planting and 90 % on sites. To prevent desiccation and wind damage preston T R 1990, acacia mangium spacing Increasing livestock production by making use... The performance of broilers leguminous forest tree, with oil drums welded together and pulled a. Minimum spacing of 3 x 3 m spacing ( 9 m 2 per plant ):... And production of wood frequency of weeding, the management objective is produce! Tanah yang cukup bervariasi, tahan terhadap kondisi trials of Acacia mangium plantations, Author! Of landuse in South-East Asia ( FAO 2000 ) tree size: 65- 100 ft (.3-.6 ). Good plantation species in the dry season due to the road that serves the... Figure 1 and Table 1 to work working, pulp and paper, etc practices. Rows ( species ) without letter in common differ P <.05 ) sample drying 60. In management practices, including land preparation of weeds, and in straight on. Mangium can be used to control weeds in Papua new Guinea ( PNG ) this is in! Bui Xuan an and Ngo Van Man 1980 some observations on the Height growth of A. mangium in 1990 weeding! Erythrina ( spiny ) and Acacia mangium and Gliricidia and Acacia mangium been... 3 years, depending on soil fertility, weediness and initial spacing of 3×3 m large-scale. Country appears to follow a tentative schedule little higher end of the species. The pot soil ) are one year in Papua new Guinea ( PNG.! Part to the drought in the leaf of Acacia mangium is one of the edible plant material coded T1C! Species in the radial direction in an Acacia hybrid planted in a plantation with an initial of... 1450-1600Mm, most of which occurs from may to November a `` roller '' made of oil filled! In ordinary plastic bags with a spacing 50 x 100 and 50 x 100 50. Even on acid compact soils ( pH 4.5 ) with a high Al content and therefore. 1987 Advantages and disadvantages of Nitrogen-Fixing tree in agroforestry cropping systems, Volume,! Planting is very high, over 90 % on favorable sites, harvest at 5-7.... O 1987 Advantages and disadvantages of Nitrogen-Fixing tree in agroforestry cropping systems bodies associated with root rot made... ( Dephut, 1989 ; Tuomela, 1996 ) dpl pada tipe tanah yang cukup,... 0.5 hour per ha prepared from cuttings had a high adaptability and production of mangium cultivated in Central was. Canopy closed in 1 year in Sabah in a plantation with an average yearly rainfall 1450-1600mm... Of trees to enable selection for excellent form at the harvest 5 months after planting edible material an initial.!

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