Reconquista, in medieval Spain and Portugal, a series of campaigns by Christian states to recapture territory from the Muslims (Moors), who had occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century. Once the former colonies became states, they A fledgling national government, the Articles of Confederation, had finally been ratified in March 1781, but it proved unable to cope with the multiple demands of a new nation not all of whose constituent states yet fully accepted even this relatively weak central government. Vincent Harding, Clayborne Carson, Peter Holloran, et al., eds., The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., 6 vols. But Southern revivalism, unlike that, for example, of Charles G. Finney in the North, did not lead to a wave of reform activity. Evangelicals were alienated from the dominant culture and focused inwardly and on their immediate church community. From there these two skilled Baptist ministers, firmly Calvinistic but fiercely evangelical, spread their version of the Baptist faith. Most of the scholarship on religion in the South since the 1960s has endeavored to explain how and why southern evangelicals in the 19th and 20th centuries have so radically transformed the South’s religiosity from Anglican ritualism and backwoods indifference to an emotional evangelicalism. After the war, independent churches and denominational organizations sprung up quickly in black communities, including thousands of small local congregations and major national organizations such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the National Baptist Convention. Southern Gothic literature is a genre of Southern writing. On occasion, they shared liminal moments of religious transcendence, before moving back into a Jim Crow world where color defined and limited everything. song of this title has nothing to do with religion, despite the common misinterpretation of the phrase. But even though the Great Revival accord among the denominations did not persist, the practical, results-oriented style of preaching became a Southern staple. Nevertheless, evangelicals largely captured the culture of the region. By sending a providential blessing in the form of a great outpouring of religious enthusiasm, a veritable second pentecost. The blues were one medium for older African-derived spiritualities driven underground by the assimilationist tendencies of late-19th-century black religious leaders. As black Catholics well knew, this was partly a sham. Tilt the prism another way, and yet another perspective emerges. More recently, this has been reinforced by the prevalence of southern preachers on the airwaves, including Jerry Falwell’s Old Time Gospel Hour, Pat Robertson’s 700 Club, the comical figures of Jim and Tammy Bakker and their Christian theme park in South Carolina, and Jimmy Swaggart, nationally known Louisiana Pentecostal and first cousin to Jerry Lee Lewis, who carried the energy and fire of Pentecostalism into his music. 7. [26] Even many of the common 13. 10. In the black community, the church was concerned with more than just the state of one’s soul. And it followed, in this line of reasoning, that if slavery was a Providential institution, then the South as a region was carrying out God’s plan. Southern gospel music is a genre of Christian music.Its name comes from its origins in the Southeastern United States whose lyrics are written to express either personal or a communal faith regarding biblical teachings and Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. But in liminal spaces—in novelty acts, revivals, and the creation of new religious and musical traditions—the bars of race came down, if only temporarily. Until recently, Catholics have been concentrated primarily in particular subregions (Louisiana and Texas, in particular), Jews have never made it even to 1 percent of the population base, Latinos were scarce outside of Texas, and Asians represented the tiniest minority of all. For example, white religious institutions and practices in the South in the 19th and 20th centuries reflected and reinforced racism. It was self–evident wisdom to place some stock in both. White southern religious ideas of the social order of the races, moreover, could be intellectually grounded in a conservative vision of the role of hierarchy in preserving order and staving off anarchy. In North Carolina, nearly 115,000 Asians had taken up residence in the state by the 2000 census, and evidence of their impact could be seen in Hindu statutes, Thai temples, Cambodian wats, and Vietnamese Catholic shrines that were popping up even in the most unexpected parts of the southern landscape. southern definition: 1. in or from the south part of an area: 2. in or from the south part of an area: . (approx. Southern Baptist definition is - a member of a body of Baptist churches organized in 1845 in the southern U.S. as the Southern Baptist Convention. … More so than ministers, many of whom were relatively silent during the civil rights crises, or who attempted to use the language of “moderation” to paper over differences, white laymen in the South articulated, defended, and enforced what amounted to a folk theology of segregation. And that has been the basic mode of the Southern way of religion to our own time. Yes, God had sent the declension to teach the nation a hard lesson—when people put politics and prosperity ahead of the matters of the spirit, their lives become barren and they suffer a loss of community and religious purpose. The next major development in the history of the Southern Colonies was the Province of Carolina, originally chartered in 1629. In recent works, David Chesebrough (Clergy Dissent in the Old South, 1996) points to the Nat Turner rebellion and William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator in 1831 as cementing the nexus of pro-slavery sentiment among southern Christians. An Op-Ed piece in The New York Times on April 5, 1997, spoke of a major shift occurring in American Protestantism, with the great divide being North versus South. The most famous of the subsequent camp meetings was that held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in August 1801, with at least several thousand in attendance (contemporary estimates ranged as high as 20,000, surely too high), but within two years camp meetings had occurred in every Southern state, often erupting almost immediately after word was received of the religious awakening taking place to the west. I noticed that while my history textbooks sometimes included religion—Pilgrims and Puritans in New England, Transcendental ministers and religious reformers in the antebellum North, Social Gospellers in the late 19th-century North, and religious thinkers like Harry Emerson Fosdick in the 20th-century North—the only mention of religion in The English-bred and trained ministers often had a condescending attitude toward their colonial parishioners, and members of the colonial elite dominated the local church vestries. And while the South turned out creative writers and musicians, to date no great theologian has emerged. On rare occasions Baptist and Methodist converts—or those still seeking a conversion experience—became so intense in their religious quest that acquaintances thought they had gone mad. Lieu de culte juif: Grande synagogue de Belz, Mur des Lamentations. We as Southern Baptists embrace the uniqueness and essentials listed above, but move further into the Southern Baptist distinctive of cooperation. 6. For much of the 19th century and at least the-first half of the 20th century, this Northern religious tradition was seen as the national religions mainstream. In North Carolina, Latinos and Asians constituted less than 2 percent of the population in 1990, but that figure rose dramatically in the subsequent decade. The religion database and community that anyone can edit! From strip-mall mosques to megachurches, the religious communities of Greater Los Angeles are strikingly vibrant and varied. Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Religion. Southern ministers during the Civil War comforted believers by saying that God controlled the path of every bullet, and He would be sure to protect the faithful even in a hail of rifle fire. The beginnings of the Southern religious tradition are not as well known, and the particular historical context in which it developed largely shaped its character and style. Later Southern ministers joined the temperance movement and thundered against alcoholics, but the late-19th-century Social Gospel was anemic in the Southern states. differences in order to forward the interdenominational progress of the revival. Black and white Pentecostals seized on the opportunities provided by mass media to spread their message. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Civil War historians have long pointed to pro-slavery views as central to southern religion of the Civil War era. Historians have provided their own parallel vocabulary of “Bible Belt” and “evangelical empire.” But contemporaries who lived through the first two hundred years of southern history since the advent of European settlers understood the fortuitous, accidental nature of history. Losing My Religion Story of Song. Définition Southern dans le dictionnaire anglais de définitions de Reverso, synonymes, voir aussi 'Southern Alps',Southern Cross',southern hemisphere',Southern Ireland', … Even the Episcopalians borrowed the strategy, the planter elite (many of whom began their lives as plain folk) soon followed the The category “Historically Black Protestant” registered at 12 percent. The Carolinas. As a result, scholars have been able to speak of a “solid South” in religion, one that has room for High Church Christianity for the elite and for Catholics in particular regions, but one that is fundamentally defined by Southern Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and (more recently) Pentecostals. As a result, scholars have been able to speak of a “solid South” in religion, one that has room for High Church Christianity for the elite and for Catholics in particular regions, but one that is fundamentally defined by Southern Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and … From the early intermingling of Protestant hymns and African styles in spirituals to the mixing of white and black country and gospel sounds on radio dials, two streams of musical religious culture flowed beside each other, never merging but often intersecting. Mine was a situation common to much of the South, though older regions, and more affluent areas, would have Presbyterian and Episcopal churches. Instead, here were the necessary foundation stones for the later Great Revival that, as a South-wide religious quickening in the decade after 1800, may accurately be described as the South’s “First Great Awakening”—some 60 years after the Northern and more famous First Great Awakening. Indeed, despite their reputation for stalwart conservatism, southern evangelicals in fact led the progressive movement in the early 20th century. In the culture of the United States, the idea of Southernization came from the observation that Southern values and beliefs had become more central to political success, reaching an apogee in the 1990s, with a Democratic President and Vice President from the South and Congressional leaders in both parties being from the South. Both Baptists and Methodists emphasized plain dress and aversion to conspicuous consumption and display, placing them in opposition to the plantation aristocrats who dominated the Anglican churches. Their sermons were more exclusively calls for conversion, their services were nonliturgical and filled with demonstrable emotion and enthusiasm, and people responded to one another in a more tactile manner, with hugs, foot washings, and clasped hands that contrasted with the austere demeanor of the Anglicans. Like the first Reconstruction, then, the civil rights movement, sometimes called the second Reconstruction, is an unfinished revolution—nowhere more so than in southern religion. Samuel S. Hill, Southern Churches in Crisis (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1967); Samuel S. Hill, The South and the North in American Religion (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1980). Throughout the North and Midwest tin’s Northern religious tradition fueled a variety of reform movements: the revivalism of Charles G. Finney, for example, led to attempts at social perfectionism including abolitionism and a wide range- of ameliorative activities. Every person I was taught to respect was a church member. Learn more about Baptists in this article. Recent compact disc collections of formerly rare and inaccessible recordings have opened up this part of southern religious history to nearly any researcher. That penalty, now paid in full, means God offers forgiveness and new life as a free gift. Moreover, I want to describe the historical origins of this Southern way of religion and indicate its broadest features, and I hope in the process to help explain certain aspects of the religious landscape of the late-20th-century South. Thus, in the 18th and 19th centuries, the South was relatively free of overt anti-Semitism. By the 1830's tension began to mount between Northern and Southern Baptists. This sanctification of segregation was important in making the white South so obsessed with purity and concerned with defending (in the words of scholar Jane Dailey) the sacred triad of sex, segregation, and the sacred. The first Presbyterians appeared in the Valley of Virginia in the late 17th century as Scotch-Irish settlers from Pennsylvania and Maryland migrated southward down the broad valley that lay just west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, separated from the older and more populous eastern section of the colony. Southern Baptists believe that the Bible is the word of God and contains no … Even that story must be complicated and studied in specific subregions, for immigration patterns are intense in very particular areas and nonexistent in others. Southern definition: Southern means in or from the south of a region, state, or country. If religion did not exactly drive Americans to war, then war drove Americans to religion as the justification for its lethally expensive costs. Guitars, tambourines, and other rhythmical instruments, once seen as musical accompaniments for the devil, found their way into black Pentecostal churches in the early 20th century. Every sermon I heard was structured to come to an emotional climax pressing sinners to convert, and we all waited—with the choir singing softly—as the preacher offered the altar call. Good roads, better schools, improved sanitation, elimination of alcohol, and the proper ordering of the races through “modern” mechanisms such as urban segregation, they realized, aided their desire to “uplift” their people. God does not act whimsically, so why would he allow such a thing to occur? Southern evangelicals have dominated their region religiously, and they still do to a large extent; they have heavily influenced their region politically, and they still do in some areas; and yet they have never felt completely secure in their cultural reign in the region, and they have less reason now than ever before to feel such confidence. The evangelical ministers were less concerned about the institution of slavery than they were the state of the souls of individual blacks. Yet these hopes and expectations were dashed by the reality of the decade and a half following the Treaty of Paris of 1783 that ended the conflict with England. In the midst of these wrenching changes, church growth halted, lay persons caught up in the throes of agricultural or geographical transition were overwhelmed just with the practical necessities of everyday life, and the religious sphere was, temporarily it turns out, comparatively extinguished from many peoples’ consciousness. Heathen definition is - of or relating to people or nations that do not acknowledge the God of the Bible : of or relating to heathens, their religions, or their customs : pagan. The only other group coming in at a figure of over 10 percent were the Catholics. Southern religion came to conform to norms of “proper” society—its founding sense of being countercultural abandoned and its words of condemnation aimed at infractions of personal morality. It was more pervasive among southern laymen and laywomen and among ministers outside the denominational hierarchy than in the circles of denominational leadership. The development of southern religious music, and its immense impact on national popular culture, provides a perfect example. Most nonclerical apologists for slavery also employed the Bible to justify their cause. Every summer there was a scheduled week-long revival, with services each night. The “Culture” part of the Center’s name largely connoted a focus on the literary and musical arts, with three articles on southern writers and religion. Churches as institutions were conservative, but progressive Christians drew different lessons from the Bible than regional religious leaders often understood. In the 1960s and 1970s, an initial burst of interest in southern religious history, spurred on by both the civil rights movement and the resistance to it, established the field, and in recent years the online Journal of Southern Religion continues to give the field a vital presence.3. In gospel, then, the steams of southern religious music, white and black, flowed alongside one another, sometimes exchanging tunes and lyrics and styles, while remaining distinct. Rather, Puritanism emphasized the individual in community, in relationship to other believers, and Puritans did not characteristically strike out alone for the frontier but moved as part of believing church communities. Women have found avenues of service and leadership in times when the larger society excluded them from positions of leadership, and many Southern people whose lack of affluence and education left them powerless in secular society have found strength and leadership roles in their churches. However, when in the More than a dozen ministers arrived too, and again, stoked by heady expectation fueled by months of organized prayer and fasting, the faithful came ready to experience a miracle— ready to interpret what they experienced as a miraculous intervention by God into space and time. Its constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Southern churches mostly remained separated by race, but in other areas of social life pluralism came to the once solid South. The one great aberration in the history of mainstream evangelical Protestantism in the South was the reaction of the churches to the perceived threat of abolitionism and their consequent support for secession and the Confederacy. The Southern religious tradition has, however, been quite different. She wishes to identify and reform the institutional structures that produce poverty, child abuse, poor health care, and other such maladies. Important questions remain in understanding religion in the present-day South. Numerous modern studies have moved beyond this homogeneity to find diverse expressions in terms of Roman Catholicism, smaller faith groups, folk religion, and broader spirituality. This tendency of ministers and churches not to become engaged with societal institutions was the result of more than just a practical emphasis on seeking converts. The Baptists and Methodists, however, most of whose appeal was to the lower orders (including slaves), were self-consciously and intentionally countercultural. Aspects However, the impact of a new generation of scholarship and the recent establishment of the Journal of Southern Religion will provide an agenda for the scholarly future. Immigrants from almost every country in the world bring their cultural traditions with them. Its fervently religious people are frequently described as “born again,” their religion as “fundamentalist.” There is some accuracy in the use of these terms. Christianity in the black community, which is an important story in its own right. Was the Southern experience with religion different from the Northern (or national) experience? It was effective to paint vivid word pictures of the sinful nature of the hearers and the frightening consequences of death and hellfire for the unredeemed versus the palatial pleasures of heaven. What had been the influence on the region of this religious tradition? And finally, none but a few religious visionaries would have understood this relatively unpopulated, deeply troubled region as the eventual base for a vast Anglo-American empire that would stretch from Virginia through Texas by the antebellum era. The point of the sermon was not to advance a set of doctrinal propositions but to convict and convert. No historical snapshot, as it were, can fully capture its dynamism or reveal the full complexity and range of its power, but several useful generalizations can be offered. But most worked through the problem, coming ultimately to believe that God was the author of their defeat. While no one letter or document spelled out the entire theodicy, one can put together the thread of their logic. into Virginia of three activist denominations in the generation after 1740: in order of appearance, the Presbyterians, the Baptists, and the Methodists. augmented by lay persons organized in classes and bands, was ready to spread the Methodist doctrine. John Boles and Donald Mathews, Religion in the Old South (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977). How to use religion in a sentence. That change would be the effective introduction The power of folk traditions as both internally cohesive and destructive forces in southern black communities also is evident in the practice of conjure, or “black magic,” The practice of conjure, a form of healing and counter-harming that drew from both Christian and African-based religious elements, was primarily the province of poor southern blacks who were its primary practitioners (although whites formed a substantial clientele base). Through black and white variants of gospel music and in the rhythmic intensity that black and white Pentecostals carried forward through the 20th century, Americans recaptured a deep soulfulness and spiritual dance and listened avidly to thinly veiled secularized versions of those forms in the popular music of the post–World War II era. In North Carolina alone, the 77,000 Latinos counted in 1990 grew to 377,000 ten years later. Later in the 20th century, Jewish southerners, including many well-known department store owners and merchants in cities such as Birmingham, Memphis, and Atlanta, had a complicated relationship with the civil rights struggle. This Northern Protestant tradition valued theology and education, had a strong social conscience, emphasized human agency, and appreciated the prophetic role of religion in the Amos-like tradition of judging society against presumed Biblical standards). The presence in their midst of devout black Christians, rather than being evidence that slavery was evil, became With it has come a revitalized scholarship, largely freed of older defensiveness and denominational hagiography, on the one hand, and academic iconoclasm, on the other. The discovery of southern Jewish history goes on apace. For religious conservatives generally, patriarchy has supplanted race as the defining first principle of God-ordained inequality. Jews have an intriguing relationship as well with the history of religions in the South. There are obvious and important truths here. In 1748 Samuel Davies, later president of the College of New Jersey (Princeton), became the leader of Virginia Presbyterians, and in 1756 the various Presbyterian churches were organized into the Hanover Presbytery. Civil rights leaders employed multiple arguments, many of them involving constitutional protections. generalizations, especially vis-a-vis the Northern way of (Protestant) religion, provide useful insights into the nature of religion in the nation. Edward L. Bond, ed., Spreading the Gospel in Colonial Virginia: Sermons and Devotional Writings (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004). Thus, biblical literalists had to give them respect, even if they knew nothing in particular of what Judaism was actually about. The South still commonly appears as the land of the Bible Belt, of evangelical Protestant hegemony. There are many complexities that could be added to this brief overview of Southern white religion, but I think these large-scale Article principal : Religion en Israël Liberté religieuse en Israël et dans les territoires occupés. The faithful were God’s agents primed to communicate and make manifest in the world God’s intentions for the whole society of which they were a part. Milton Sernett, ed., African American Religious History: A Documentary Witness (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000); and Cornel West and Eddie Glaude, eds., African American Religious Thought: An Anthology (Westminster, KY: John Knox Press, 2003). Americans later pronounced divine plans and interventions in this entire process. They still faced some of their old competitors and enemies, such as the honor culture of the Old South that prized masculine assertiveness, as well as the poverty and isolation that gripped so much of the region. Indeed, southern religious influences lay at the heart of much of 20th-century American popular culture. Puritans’ efforts contributed to both civil war in England and the founding of colonies in America. the South was the embarrassing episode of the Scopes Trial. Southern orthodoxy, according to Hill, sees individual conversion (rather than social reform or any larger purpose) as the central role of religious institutions—an argument later dubbed the “conversionist paradigm.” Southern believers historically have seen their own region as a Zion, set apart from the secularizing currents of the rest of the country, and thus more pure, more godly. . The aberration in corporate religion—heavy investment in defending the institution of slavery and the political experiment of the Confederacy—was a mistake, a delusion. Religion in Southern California is about more than prayer and ritual in churches, temples and masjids. The conflicting messages we find among religions are due more to doctrine and dogma than to the reality of spiritual experience. The black church ministered to all aspects of its people and eventually gave moral power to the Civil Rights Movement, Not until the 1960’s did the white churches in the South begin to learn from the black that Christianity had a powerful and redeeming social dimension. several days in preparation for communion—in fact, the practice can be traced back to Scotland—and Methodists in England and along the eastern seaboard had held large outdoor services, the size, duration, and multidenominational format of the Gasper River event was unprecedented. In the 20th-century South, however, constructing a theological defense of segregation was more complicated. At the same time, the dominance of evangelicalism is not quite as simple as portrayed in the term Bible Belt. Protestant evangelicalism has obviously been the dominant religion of the region since the rise of the Bible Belt in the 19th century and the expanding southern religious empires (especially that of the Southern Baptist Convention) in the 20th century. Freedom of religion definition is - the right to choose what religion to follow and to worship without interference. The evangelicals at first had been despised outsiders, but within three generations they had moderated their sharp edges, honed their organizational strategies, and become culturally dominant. They dug up references to “render unto Caesar” and formulated obscurantist renderings of Old Testament passages such as the Son of Ham mythologies (the story from Genesis 9:18–27 when Noah condemns the “sons of Ham” to servitude). Religion is an important part of millions of people's lives across the world. Despite the presence of the occasional odd anti-slavery southern divine, white southern Christians erected a wall of separation between the realms of spiritual and temporal equality. Before most … As evangelicalism accommodated to Southern society in order to be allowed to preach the gospel in the slave quarters, and as more and more slaves became Christians, Southern white ministers and their flocks came to see slavery as a divine institution—the process God devised to introduce Africans to Christianity. Look it up now! Thus, the South may be colored with a dominant background of white and black Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and Pentecostals along with a sprinkling of other groups in particular areas. While there had in the past been large gatherings of Presbyterians for By the mid-1780’s an enthusiastic Methodist culture reflected the success of the Methodist itinerants at spreading their belief system among pockets of supporters across much of the South. 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